ACTIVE&PASSIVE VOICES


ACTIVE&PASSIVE VOICES

There are two special forms for verbs called voice:

            1.Active voice

            2.Passive voice

1.ACTIVE VOICE

is the “normal” voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. You are probably already familiar with the active voice. In active sentence,the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object.Most sentences are active.

Thing doing action(Subject) + verb + Thing receiving action(Object)

Examples:

            She                 calls              Laura.

         Subject             Verb               Object

    (Doing action)                     (Receiving action)

   The Professor      teaches         the students.

        Subject               Verb                  Object

  (Doing action)                          (Receiving action)

In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb:

active

subject

verb

object

 

Cats

eat

Fish.

 

 

 

2.PASSIVE VOICE

            is less usual In passive sentences,the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence.You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized.You can also use the passive form if you don’t know who is doing the action or if you don’t want to mention who is doing the action.

 

Thing receiving action(Subject)+tobe+past participle of verb + by +thing doing action(Object)

                                                           Tobe+being+past participle

            Examples:

                        She                 is                     called                        by                   Laura.

                     Subject             be                passive verb                           Object

            (Receiving action)                                                                   (Doing action)

                The students      are                  taught                      by                   the professor.

                    Subject                be              passive verb                                  Object

            (Receiving action)                                                                         (Doing action)

In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb:

passive

subject

verb

object

 

Fish

are eaten

By cats.

The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb:

 

subject

verb

object

active

Everybody

drinks

Water.

passive

Water

is drunk

By everybody.

 

CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VOICE

The structure of the passive voice is very simple:

Subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)

The main verb is always in its past participle form.

Look at these examples:

subject

auxiliary verb (to be)

 

main verb (past participle)

 

Water

is

 

drunk

by everyone.

100 people

are

 

employed

by this company.

I

am

 

paid

in euro.

We

are

not

paid

in dollars.

Are

they

 

paid

in yen?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USE OF PASSIVE VOICE

We use the passive when:

  • we want to make the active object more important
  • we do not know the active subject

 

subject

verb

object

give importance to active object (President Kennedy)

President Kennedy

was killed

By Lee Harvey Oswald.

active subject unknown

My wallet

Has been stolen.

?

Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).

Look at this sentence:

  • He was killed with a gun.

Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the “agent” or “doer”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONJUGATION FOR PASSIVE VOICE

We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:

  • present simple: It is made
  • present continuous: It is being made
  • present perfect: It has been made

Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:

infinitive

to be washed

simple

present

It is washed.

past

It was washed.

future

It will be washed.

conditional

It would be washed.

continuous

present

It is being washed.

past

It was being washed.

future

It will be being washed.

conditional

It would be being washed.

perfect simple

present

It has been washed.

past

It had been washed.

future

It will have been washed.

conditional

It would have been washed.

perfect continuous

present

It has been being washed.

past

It had been being washed.

future

It will have been being washed.

conditional

It would have been being washed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACTIVE/PASSIVE OVERVIEW

TENSES

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Simple Present

He hits me.

Iam hit by him.

Present Progressive

Sarah is writing the letter.

The letter is being written by sarah.

Present Perfect

Many tourist have visited that castle.

That castle has been visited by many tourist.

Present Perfect Progressive

Recently,John has been doing the work.

Recently,the work has been being done by John.

Simple Past

She called me.

I was called by her.

Past Progressive

They were painting the house.

The house was being painting by them.

Past Perfect

I had folded many sheets of paper.

Many sheets of paper had been folded by me.

Past Perfect Progressive

Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.

The rastaurant’sfantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.

Simple Future

They will give us money.

We will be given money by them.

Future Progressive

At 8:00 pm tonight,John will be washing the dishes.

At 8:00 pm tonight,the dishes will being washed by John.

Future Perfect

They will have completed the project before the deadline.

The project will have been completed by them before the deadline.

Future Perfect Progressive

The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.

The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.

 

NOTES:

*Subject in Active Voice can change as Object in Passive Voice.

*Object in Active Voice can change as Subject in Passive Voice.

*Predicate in Passive Voice consist of : 1.Tobe+past participle.

2.Tobe+being +past participle.

 (For Passive voice in Progressive form).

*Predicate in Passive Voice must Transitive Verb.

*Active voice which is the predicate intransitive verb cannot change into  Passive voice.

Tentang fikaristiany

Oi(orang indonesia) I just want to be my self... Easy going open minded friendly humble and many more...
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Satu Balasan ke ACTIVE&PASSIVE VOICES

  1. Louisa berkata:

    “ACTIVE&PASSIVE VOICES | Untukmu Sebuah Nama”
    Windows Blinds was a perfect blog post. If perhaps it possessed more photos this might be even more beneficial.

    Take care ,Nelly

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